💊What is LEVOFLOXACIN?. Side effects, uses, doses and benefits of Levofloxacin (Levaquin).💊
Levofloxacinsold under the trade names Levaquin among others, is an antibiotic. Common side effects include nauseadiarrheaand trouble sleeping. Levofloxacin was patented in and approved for medical use in levofloxacina e prostatilen United States in Levofloxacin is used to treat infections including: respiratory tract infectionscellulitisurinary tract infectionsprostatitisanthraxendocarditismeningitispelvic inflammatory diseasetraveler's diarrheatuberculosisand plague   and is available by mouth, intravenously and in eye drop form.
As ofthe US Food and Drug Administration FDA recommended that "serious side effects associated with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs generally outweigh the benefits for patients with acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections who have other treatment options. For patients with these conditions, fluoroquinolones should be reserved for those who do not have alternative treatment options. Levofloxacin is used for the treatment of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and abdominal infections.
As of the Infectious Disease Society of America IDSA and the American Thoracic Society recommended levofloxacin and other respiratory fluoroquinolines as first line treatment for community acquired pneumonia when co-morbidities such as heart, lung, or liver disease are present or when in-patient treatment is required. As of it was recommended by the IDSA as a first-line treatment option for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adults.
Levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones have also been widely used for the levofloxacina e prostatilen of uncomplicated community-acquired respiratory and urinary tract infections, indications for which major medical societies generally levofloxacina e prostatilen the use of older, narrower spectrum drugs to avoid fluoroquinolone resistance development.
Levofloxacina e prostatilen to its widespread use, common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have developed resistance. Levofloxacin is also used as antibiotic eye drops to prevent bacterial infection. Levofloxacina e prostatilen of levofloxacin eye drops, along with an antibiotic injection levofloxacina e prostatilen cefuroxime or penicillin during cataract surgeryhas been found to lower the chance of developing endophthalmitiscompared to eye drops or injections alone.
According to the FDA approved prescribing levofloxacina e prostatilen, levofloxacin is pregnancy category C. Available data point to a low risk for the unborn child. Levofloxacin does levofloxacina e prostatilen into breastmilk, though the concentration of levofloxacin in the breastfeeding infant is expected to be low.
Levofloxacin is not approved levofloxacina e prostatilen most countries for the treatment of children except in unique and life-threatening infections because it is associated with an elevated risk of musculoskeletal injury in this population, a property it shares with other fluoroquinolones. In the United States levofloxacin is approved for the treatment of anthrax and plague in children over six months of age.
Levofloxacin is recommended by the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America as a first-line treatment for pediatric pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniaeand as a second-line agent for the treatment levofloxacina e prostatilen penicillin-sensitive cases. In one study,   juvenile patients age 6 months to 16 years treated with levofloxacin levofloxacina e prostatilen part of three efficacy trials levofloxacina e prostatilen followed up to assess all musculoskeletal events occurring up to 12 months post-treatment.
Levofloxacina e prostatilen 12 months follow-up the cumulative incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events was levofloxacina e prostatilen. Levofloxacin and levofloxacina e prostatilen generation fluoroquinolones are collectively referred to as "respiratory quinolones" to distinguish them from earlier fluoroquinolones which exhibited modest activity toward the important respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.
The drug exhibits enhanced activity against the important respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae relative to earlier fluoroquinolone derivatives like ciprofloxacin. For this reason, it is considered a "respiratory fluoroquinolone" along with more recently developed fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin. It is less active than ciprofloxacin against Gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosaand lacks the anti- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA activity of moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin.
Its spectrum of activity includes most strains of bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, and abdominal infections, including Gram negative Escherichia coliHaemophilus influenzaeKlebsiella pneumoniaeLegionella pneumophilaMoraxella catarrhalisProteus mirabilis levofloxacina e prostatilen, and Pseudomonas aeruginosaGram positive methicillin -sensitive but not methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pneumoniaeStaphylococcus epidermidisEnterococcus faecalisand Streptococcus pyogenesand atypical bacterial pathogens Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Compared to earlier antibiotics of the fluoroquinoline class such as ciprofloxacinlevofloxacin exhibits greater activity towards Gram-positive bacteria  but lesser activity toward Gram-negative bacteria,  especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is common in staphylococcus and pseudomonas. Resistance occurs in multiple ways. One mechanism is by an alteration in topoisomerase IV enzyme.
A double mutant form of S. Package inserts mention that levofloxacin is to be avoided in patients with a known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin or other quinolone drugs. Like all fluoroquinolines, levofloxacin is contraindicated in patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders, and in patients who have a history of quinolone-associated tendon rupture. Levofloxacin may levofloxacina e prostatilen the QT interval in some people, especially the elderly, and levofloxacin should not be used for people with a family history of Long QT syndromeor who have long QT, chronic low potassiumit should not be prescribed levofloxacina e prostatilen other drugs levofloxacina e prostatilen prolong the QT interval.
Unlike ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin does levofloxacina e prostatilen appear to deactivate the drug metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2. Therefore, drugs that use that enzyme, like theophyllinedo not interact with levofloxacin. It is a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9 suggesting potential to block the breakdown of warfarin and phenprocoumon. This can result in more action of drugs like warfarin, leading to more potential side effects, such as bleeding.
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs in combination with high dose fluoroquinolone therapy may lead to seizures. When levofloxacin is taken with anti-acids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, the two combine to form insoluble salts that are difficult to absorb from the intestines. Similar results have been reported when levofloxacin is taken with iron supplements and multi-vitamins containing zinc.
A review examining musculoskeletal complications of fluoroquinolones proposed guidelines with respect to administration to athletes, that called for avoiding all use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics if possible, and if they are used: ensure there is informed consent about the musculoskeletal risks, and inform coaching staff; do not use any corticosteroids if fluoroquinolones are used; consider dietary supplements of magnesium and antioxidants during treatment; reduce training until the course of levofloxacina e prostatilen is finished and then carefully increase back to normal; and monitor for six months after the course is finished, and stop all athletic activity if symptoms emerge.
Adverse effects are typically mild to moderate. However, severe, disabling, and potentially irreversible adverse effects sometimes occur, and for this reason use it is recommended that use of fluoroquinolones be limited. Prominent among these are adverse effects that became the subject of a black box warning by the FDA in These adverse effects can involve the tendons, muscles, joints, nerves, and central nervous system.
A wide variety of other uncommon but serious adverse events have been associated with fluoroquinolone use, with varying degrees of evidence supporting causation. These include anaphylaxis, hepatotoxicity, central nervous system effects including seizures and psychiatric effects, prolongation of the QT intervalblood glucose disturbances, and photosensitivityamong others.
There is some disagreement in the medical literature regarding whether and to what extent levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones produce serious adverse effects more frequently than other broad spectrum antibacterial drugs.
With regard to more usual adverse effects, in pooled results from patients exposed to levofloxacin in 29 clinical trials, 4.
The levofloxacina e prostatilen common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were gastrointestinal, including nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Administration of levofloxacin or other broad spectrum antibiotics is associated with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea which may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Fluoroquinoline administration may be associated with the acquisition and outgrowth of a particularly virulent Clostridium strain.
More research is needed to determine the best dose and length of treatment. Overdosing experiments in animals showed loss of body control and drooping, difficulty breathing, tremors, and convulsions. In the event of an acute overdosage, authorities recommend unspecific standard procedures such as emptying the stomach, observing the patient and maintaining appropriate hydration. Levofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that levofloxacina e prostatilen active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
With the DNA not being separated, the process is stopped, and the bacterium cannot divide. DNA gyrase, on the other hand, is responsible for supercoiling the DNA, so that it will fit in the newly formed cells.
Both mechanisms amount to killing the bacterium. Levofloxacin acts as a levofloxacina e prostatilen. As of the mechanism of action for the drug's musculoskeletal complications were not clear. Levofloxacin is rapidly and essentially completely absorbed after oral administration, with a plasma concentration profile over time that is essentially identical to that obtained from intravenous administration of the same amount over 60 minutes.
As such, the levofloxacina e prostatilen and oral formulations of levofloxacin are considered interchangeable. The drug undergoes widespread distribution into body tissues. Peak levels in skin are achieved 3 hours after administration and exceed those in plasma by a factor of 2.
Similarly, lung tissue concentrations range from two-fold to five-fold higher than plasma concentrations in the 24 hours after a single dose. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacina e prostatilen ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of levofloxacin given orally or intravenously. Elimination occurs mainly via excretion of unmetabolized drug in the urine. Levofloxacin is the levo isomer of the racemate ofloxacinanother quinolone antimicrobial agent.
Levofloxacin is the S-enantiomer and it binds more effectively to the DNA gyrase enzyme and topoisomerase IV than its counterpart. Levofloxacin is a levofloxacina e prostatilen to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder.
Levofloxacin is a third-generation fluoroquinolonebeing one of the isomers levofloxacina e prostatilen ofloxacinwhich was a broader-spectrum conformationally locked analog of norfloxacin ; both ofloxacin and levofloxaxin were synthesized and developed by scientists at Daiichi Seiyaku. It was first approved for marketing in Japan in for oral administration, and Daiichi marketed it there under the brand name Cravit.
Levofloxacin is marketed by Sanofi-Aventis under a license agreement signed with Daiichi in under the trade name "Tavanic". The term of the levofloxacin United States patent was extended by the U. Patent and Trademark Office days under the provisions of the Hatch Waxman Amendment so that the patent would expire in instead of Levofloxacin is available in tablet form, injection, and oral solution.
As levofloxacina e prostatilenJohnson and Johnson was facing around state and federal lawsuits filed by people who claimed tendon damage from levofloxacin; about pending in a class action at the United States District Court in Minnesota  and about pending at a district court in New Jersey. By Mayall but cases had been settled or adjudicated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. US : C Risk not ruled out. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Treat Respir Med. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 25 August levofloxacina e prostatilen Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 23 January Briggs, Roger K.
Freeman, Sumner J. Archived from the original on 1 February Robin Analogue-based Drug Discovery. World Health Organization. April Archived PDF from the original on 13 December